Time-honoured divides are sometimes so embedded that reconciliation between different perspectives looks to be impossible.
The Internet Is Overrun With Images of Child Sexual Abuse. What Went Wrong?
Female genital mutilation FGM provides one example of this divide, both because of the nature of the practice Female genital mutilation FGM provides one example of this divide, both because of the nature of the practice itself — anything which concerns sex or gendered beliefs can become a minefield - and because of the diametrically opposing perspectives held by its traditional proponents and those who in modern times have sought to eradicate it. KAMEEL AHMADY writes: Although efforts to eradicate a thousand-year-old custom are challenged by the very tenacity — and increasingly recognized ubiquity — of the practice, Female Genital Mutilation is an issue of urgency to feminists, human rights campaigners and social activists as well as international organizations such as UNICEF and many responsible governments determined to end it.
I join them. This research [began] when I returned from Europe after a prolonged absence to my birthplace, Iranian Kurdistan, to learn more about FGM. Remembering hushed tones from my childhood suggesting that FGM -- locally called sunnet -- existed in some parts of Iranian Kurdistan, I decided to conduct some preliminary research beginning with my own family and close relatives. Imagine my shock when uncovering evidence that FGM had long existed in areas of Mukriyan and that my grandmothers, mother and sister had all endured it.
In fact, within Iran, a heavy omerta hangs over the practice. Only a limited number of people from non-FGM-practicing provinces know of its concentration within some regions of the country. The scope of the project gradually extended into regions of Iran beyond my home, and in this journey, I enjoyed assistance in fieldwork as well as in analysis and assembly of data. This ground-breaking handbook details the present situation with regard to female genital mutilation FGM in Britain, referring also to other Western nations where FGM occurs.
It scrutinises current pathways to eradicating this It scrutinises current pathways to eradicating this dangerous, sometimes lethal, form of child abuse and gender-related violence. The cultural and belief systems giving rise to FGM are complex.
A simple informative essay on child abuse Essay Example
Further, FGM is an intensely intimate matter often imposed on young and vulnerable children. It is also vital that everyone concerned - whether in caring and parental, safeguarding or other roles - understands fully that, regardless of custom or belief, FGM is a serious crime The Color Purple is a novel written by Alice Walker and she successfully colors the different types of abuses the main character Celie had to face during her childhood.
View Comments. Children in the public benefit system at risk of maltreatment: Identification via predictive modeling. A growing body of research links child abuse and neglect to a range of negative short- and long-term health outcomes. Determining a The objective was to explore the potential use of administrative data for targeting prevention and early intervention services to children and families.
A data set of integrated public benefit and child protection records for children born in New Zealand between January 1, , and June 1, , was used to develop a risk algorithm using stepwise probit modeling. Data were analyzed in Among children in the top decile of risk, This analysis demonstrates that PRMs can be used to generate risk scores for substantiated maltreatment. Although a PRM cannot replace more-comprehensive clinical assessments of abuse and neglect risk, this approach provides a simple and cost-effective method of targeting early prevention services.
Preventing severe and fatal child maltreatment: making the case for the expanded use and integration of data.
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In this article we examine risk factors for severe and fatal child maltreatment. These factors emerge from studies based on different data sources, including official child maltreatment data, emergency department and hospitalization data, These factors emerge from studies based on different data sources, including official child maltreatment data, emergency department and hospitalization data, death certificates, and data from child death review teams.
The empirical literature reflects a growing effort to overcome the measurement uncertainties of any one individual data system. After review and reflection upon what is known, we consider how integrating this information can advance efforts to protect children, providing examples where the use and linkage of multiple sources of data may enhance surveillance, improve front-end decisionmaking, and support cost-effective research and evaluation.
Bordered Churches and Unbordered Survivors of Abuse. In its infancy, the Church defined itself against other religions and philosophies which appeared similar to Christianity, by boldly claiming: "Outside of the Church there is no salvation" Extra Ecclesiam Nulla Salus.
This particularly Whilst this kind of border for the Church expanded the notion of salvation, and border theologising from the migrational space tells us the opening of borders, the call for their flexibility and porousness is the Gospel way, this chapter argues that the defining of borders with survivors of abuse is also a good thing. It reappropriates the old catchcry for the early Church to boldly claim in fact that without the defining of boundaries for healthy relationships within Church spaces, there is no salvation for the Church terminus ad extra ecclesiam nulla salus.
The paper importantly highlights the complexity of the intersectional experience of being a survivor of abuse, a woman, a migrant, and coming from a colonized space to enter into a different colonized space. It searches for the Gospel hope amidst this multilevel cross-death-resurrection existence. Pathological gambling disorder and problem gambling are addictive disorders with severe consequences for individuals, families, and society. Knowledge about associations between childhood adverse experiences i. Strong bivariate associations between adverse childhood experiences and gambling status were found, which were attenuated with the inclusion of clinical covariates.
The problem is that these initially adaptive changes can become counterproductive later on, he says. A key question, McEwen says, is can the brain readjust itself to function capably in a safer environment? One way scientists are tackling this question is by studying people who show little or no overt symptomatology despite a history of abuse or neglect and comparing them to individuals with similar histories of abuse who did develop problems.
That turns out not to be the case, says Teicher, who called it one of the most surprising findings in his 30 years of research in this area. In a review on the neurobiology of maltreatment, his research team analyzed dozens of imaging studies to learn that all maltreated individuals have the same fundamental brain changes and the same fundamental defects in brain network architecture whether or not they show psychiatric symptoms.
The latest findings from his Harvard laboratory, which are not yet published, suggest a possible explanation for this puzzling observation: resilient individuals have reduced interconnectivity among a number of brain regions relative both to controls and maltreated individuals with psychiatric symptoms.
Teicher interprets this as evidence that secondary changes in specific neural nodes enable resilient individuals to effectively compensate for maltreatment-related brain adaptations. Figuring out how to enhance resilience or boost compensatory changes in the brain—essentially, to adapt to the maladaptation of abuse—is a primary goal of treatment.
A one-size-fits-all therapy is unlikely, partly because maltreated individuals exhibit such a wide spectrum of psychological outcomes. Drug therapy seems to play a very limited role in helping individuals with a significant history of maltreatment, Teicher says, a fact he laments is under-recognized in psychiatry. More promising, he thinks, are talk therapies such as Dialectical Behavioral Therapy DBT , an intensive training program that combines aspects of mindfulness and self-regulation, and to a lesser degree, trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy, as well as a complex-trauma treatment model known as ARC, for Attachment, Regulation, and Competence.
A few alternative therapies have shown some potential, including mindfulness meditation, yoga, EMDR eye movement desensitization and reprocessing , and neurofeedback. Bessel van der Kolk, a Boston-based psychiatrist who wrote the New York Times best seller The Body Keeps the Score , often repeats the mantra that there is no one best treatment for all people.
Maltreatment takes many forms. Physical, sexual or emotional abuse, extreme neglect, and separation from parents are the more obvious forms. More insidious causes of toxic stress, including poverty, food insecurity, and systemic racism, can also affect psychological and physical health.
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Social-educational programs directed at early childhood or adolescence have shown mixed results in addressing poor health outcomes from these less overt but more widespread toxic-stress environments. A few stand out. The program has demonstrated a host of benefits to both infant and maternal health , including lower rates of infant mortality and pre-term birth, and a significant return on investment in terms of cost vs. McEwen also points to a program at the University of Georgia that is focused specifically on African American adolescents.
Strong African American Families enrolls and year-olds and their primary caregivers in a 7-week program designed to enhance parenting in low-income families. Recent data show that program effectively ameliorated the long-recognized association between years lived in poverty and reduced size of the hippocampus and amygdala. Separate data found that insulin resistance or prediabetes, a condition linked to stress-induced metabolic changes, was also largely prevented among participants vs. Results from improved techniques—including finding brain tissue in a moving fetus in moving amniotic fluid—add to the argument that the seeds of some disorders are present before birth.
While mass shootings continue to escalate, politics has led to the absence of solid, peer-reviewed research that will help identify individuals who might commit violent crimes.
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Column by Philip M. Pain expert Howard Fields, Ph. Researchers are teasing out the details of muscles, memory, and mood. Can brain cells be revived after death? Conventional wisdom says cells die quickly when deprived of oxygen, but researchers recently sparked cellular activity in brains of pigs killed hours earlier, raising new questions about our definitions of death.
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