For the biogas sector, progressive targets for the decade — were established as depicted in Figure 5 d.
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Obviously, in conjunction with new targets, the Italian Government updated the support scheme which entered into force from 1 January New support policies are detailed presented in the Ministerial Decree of 6 July , [ 79 ] and it is apply to plants commissioned from 1 January In the Decree, new, totally rebuilt, reactivated, re-powered or upgraded or renovated RES plants other than photovoltaic with an electric nameplate power of at least 1 kW are eligible to receive the State support.
The All-inclusive feed-in tariff is applicable only to plants with an electric nameplate power lower than 1 MW while Incentive can be applied to plant with a design power lower or higher than 1 MW but which does not benefit of To. The All-inclusive feed-in tariff is computed as the sum of a base feed-in tariff Tb and a premium Pr , if the plant is eligible.
As underlined in Annex 1 of the Decree, Tb depends on plant capacity, source kind and plant type while the premium is assigned to plant which, e. More complex is the Incentive calculation because I is given by the difference between Tb, gained by Pr if the plant is eligible , and the hourly zonal electricity price Pz. The hourly zonal electricity price is computed based on the zone where the plant produces and injects electricity into grid. Pz depends also from the time of day at which it is produced and, obviously, the day itself weekly days prices are higher than public holidays ones as well as high demand hours compared to off-peak ones.
Please note that plants granted with incentives have the advantage of remaining the owners of the produced electricity while for both Tb and I, the period for which the subsidy is guaranteed depends on plant nameplate power and RES type. In regards to biogas units, both Tb and I are granted for 20 years independently to plant power and source type. Tb depends on plant capacity and feedstock type while Pr changes with plant capacity, feedstock type and if the plant is considered a high-efficiency CHP unit.
The new Feed-in Premium scheme entered in operation the 1st of January and it runs until 30 June It was applied to plants with a rated power from 1 kW to 5 MW while the incentives ranged from 0. This Feed-in Premium scheme was hardly considered generous compared with the previous one.
Therefore, biogas installations continued to growth in terms of plants number, but the total installed electricity capacity and the related electricity generation remained approximately constant as clearly shown in Figure 5 a,b. The Ministerial Decree of 6 July entered into force the 1st of January and expired on 30 June when entered into force the Ministerial Decree of 23 June [ 80 ].
The Decree updates again the Government supports regarding the electricity generation from RES plants other than photovoltaic with a capacity of at least 1 kW. However, in this case, stringent conditions were set up. However, in this Decree, the Government established that new incentives are granted from the 30th of June, until 30 days after reaching one of the following conditions:. This is the maximum indicative cumulative cost available for renewable plants other than PV which produce electricity. In addition to the previous conditions, the Government established different paths to incentives access depending on engine nameplate electric power, kind of proposed project and adopted RES:.
Incentives can be granted only to grid injected electricity. Therefore, self-consumed electricity is not grated with supports and needs to be excluded from RES electricity generation calculations. A maximum installed capacity of MW of which MW for new onshore wind capacity can be awarded with incentives.
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Regarding support schemes, as in previous cases [ 73 , 74 , 79 ], two types of incentives are available depending on plant nameplate power and type and adopted RES: All-inclusive feed-in tariff To and Incentive I. The All-inclusive feed-in tariff is applicable only to plant with an electric nameplate power lower than kW while Incentive can be applied to plant with a design power lower or higher than kW but which does not benefit of To.
As in previous Decree, the Incentive is computed as the difference between Tb, increased by Pr if the plant is eligible , and the hourly zonal electricity price Pz. The hourly zonal electricity price is computed based on the zone where the plant produces and injects electricity into the grid. Plants granted with incentives I have the advantage of remaining the owners of the produced electricity while for both Tb and I, the period for which the subsidy is guaranteed depends on plant nameplate power and RES type.
In regards to biogas units, nothing is changed from the previous Decree because both Tb and I are granted for 20 years independently to plant power and source type. Tb depends on plant capacity and feedstock type while Pr changes with plant capacity, feedstock type and if the plant is considered an high-efficiency CHP unit. Obviously, Tb and Pr established in the Ministerial Decree of 23 June , are lower than the ones established in the Ministerial Decree of 6 July , but, in the last Decree, biogas producers can access to tax exemptions.
In fact, in , the Feed-in Tariff is available for biogas plants with a rated power from 1 to kW, it has a duration of 20 years and a value which ranges from 0. The further incentives drop coupled with the plant rated power reduction to receive incentives further slowing down the Italian biogas plant installations as, again, depicted in Figure 5 a,b.
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The blockade of biogas installations is a crucial point because, in , plants fed by bioenergy where installed in Italy. However, among them, were biogas units while only and were plants fed by liquid biofuels and solid biomass, respectively. Bioenergy plants represented the 7. In Italy, due to high subsidies until end, the most widespread technology is the four-stroke internal combustion engine with an electric design power of 1 MW. The heat generated by the ICE is partially recovered and used to maintain the digester required temperature usually the heat recovered from the engine cooling water and the oil employed in the lubrication system while the exhaust gases are directly released into the environment with a remarkable waste of heat [ 45 ].
Bioenergy generation amounted for 19, GWh: Biogas plants generated the Focusing on biogas Regional production, the The Lombardia region contributed for Among the biogas plants year , The remaining 3. In terms of installed power, the situation is slightly different.
Agriculture feedstock remains the most used substrate with Waste and animal manure contributed for Similarly, the electricity generation per feedstock is Despite the huge number of biogas plants and largest EU fleet of vehicles fuelled with gas [ 71 ], Italy has only 6 biomethane plants: 3 based on agricultural substrates, 2 on municipal solid waste and 1 on landfill waste.
All of them sell biomethane to vehicles fuel stations and no one is connected to the natural gas network. As explain also in [ 71 ], biomethane is one of the most attracted way to de-carbonise the transportation sector especially in a country with over gas fuel stations for vehicles refilling and imports crude oil for 21, million of Euro. In terms of installed electricity capacity, Italy is in the third position behind Germany and UK. The Italian biogas plants are mainly devoted to electricity production. In fact, at European level, Italy ranks second only, again, to Germany in terms of electricity generation from biogas.
However, despite the second position and an electricity generation of GWh, German electricity generation is 3. Italy needs to restart biogas installations because, at the time of writing, it fulfils the National Renewable Energy Action Plan targets at , but, in a couple of years, new targets will be set for at least So, the sector needs new supports especially to expand upon both biogas for electricity and heat generation and biomethane for injection in natural gas network as well as fuel for transportation purposes sub-sectors.
In Italy, as in several other European countries, biogas composition is not subject to a specific legislation like biogas engine emissions. Therefore, each biogas plant manufacturer adjust the anaerobic digestion process in such a way that the methane quantity in the produce biogas is the highest possible. This aspect guarantees a higher combustion quality in terms of stability and emissions. Being Italian biogas used in internal combustion engines, in this work, the authors report on only the Italian limits for biogas ICEs Table 1.
Bearing in mind Table 1 , it is important to note that:. In [ 81 ], the limit set to VOC includes also methane. Biogas plants must be brought into line with this new legislation until the end of Being Germany and natural gas, respectively, the biogas leader and the biogas competitor, it is mandatory to perform a comparison in terms of set limits. Nitrogen Oxides and Carbon Monoxide maximum values depend on engine type and not on nameplate thermal power.
In Italy, internal combustion engines fed by natural gas, independently to the nameplate thermal power, are restricted in terms of:. In this context, it is possible to claim that NO x limit, in the case of natural gas, is more stringent than the biogas one, while German regulation prescribe limit to Formaldehyde: a toxic and volatile compound which is known to be a human carcinogen. For this reason, in the present work, the authors analysed biogas emission components not only taking into account the regulated emissions listed in Table 1 but also substances like particulate, SO x , Formaldehyde, etc.
Emissions for which are not currently available a legislation at both Italian and European level. Similarly, plants investment and operation costs are derived from data provided by biogas plants operators.
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Analyses of biogas composition involved characteristic compounds like methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, etc. Hydrogen sulphur calculation refers to M. Biogas engine emissions can be grouped as regulated and unregulated emissions. Unregulated emissions considered in this work is Formaldehyde because a comparison between Italian and German Standards is performed.
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Ammonia and H 2 S are measured based on M. Formaldehyde is evaluated on the basis of CARB Biogas plants involved in this research project are made up of a reception tank, two primary fermenter, two secondary fermenters, a gas holder, a residue storage tank, a solid feeder, a biogas filtration unit and a biogas ICE. Primary and secondary fermentes have a cylindrical shape, both are characterised by a height of 6 m but primary fermentes have an an external diameter of Both primary and secondary fermentes thickness is 0. In the crawl space between internal and external diameter fermentes walls , heating tubes and multiple layers of insulation materials are placed.
Heating tubes are used to maintain fermenters at a constant temperature as required by the AD process [ 63 ]. The heating pipes are fed by the hot water heated up recovering the heat of the engine cooling water and of the lubrication oil.
The residue storage tank has the same dimension of the secondary fermentes while solids feeder are tanks with variable shape and dimensions which are usually placed near fermentes. As mentioned in Section 2.