When a given source does not list an individual author, you may provide the source title or the name of the organization that published the material instead. When directly quoting a source, it is also required that you include the page number where the quote appears in your citation. This information may be included within the sentence or in a parenthetical reference at the end of the sentence, as in these examples. The page number appears in parentheses after the closing quotation marks and before the period that ends the sentence.
Again, the parenthetical citation is placed after the closing quotation marks and before the period at the end of the sentence. Here, the writer chose to mention the source title in the sentence an optional piece of information to include and followed the title with a parenthetical citation. Note that the parenthetical citation is placed before the comma that signals the end of the introductory phrase. Another variation is to introduce the author and the source title in your sentence and include the publication date and page number in parentheses within the sentence or at the end of the sentence.
As long as you have included the essential information, you can choose the option that works best for that particular sentence and source. Citing a book with a single author is usually a straightforward task. Of course, your research may require that you cite many other types of sources, such as books or articles with more than one author or sources with no individual author listed. You may also need to cite sources available in both print and online and nonprint sources, such as websites and personal interviews.
Research Paper MLA Style: Formatting Guidelines
APA is just one of several different styles with its own guidelines for documentation, formatting, and language usage. Depending on your field of interest, you may be exposed to additional styles, such as the following:. The brief citations included in the body of your paper correspond to the more detailed citations provided at the end of the paper in the references section.
Again, this information allows your reader to follow up on the sources you cited and do additional reading about the topic if desired. The specific format of entries in the list of references varies slightly for different source types, but the entries generally include the following information:.
If an entry continues for more than one line, the second line and each subsequent line are indented five spaces. Review the following example. In APA style, book and article titles are formatted in sentence case, not title case. Sentence case means that only the first word is capitalized, along with any proper nouns.
MLA Format and MLA Citation - Writing Guide & Examples
This section covers the nitty-gritty details of in-text citations. You will learn how to format citations for different types of source materials, whether you are citing brief quotations, paraphrasing ideas, or quoting longer passages. You will also learn techniques you can use to introduce quoted and paraphrased material effectively. Keep this section handy as a reference to consult while writing the body of your paper. As noted in previous sections of this book, in-text citations usually provide the name of the author s and the year the source was published.
For direct quotations, the page number must also be included. For brief quotations—fewer than forty words—use quotation marks to indicate where the quoted material begins and ends, and cite the name of the author s , the year of publication, and the page number where the quotation appears in your source.
General Formatting Guidelines
Remember to include commas to separate elements within the parenthetical citation. Also, avoid redundancy. If you name the author s in your sentence, do not repeat the name s in your parenthetical citation.
- MLA Style Guide, 8th Edition: Formatting Your MLA Paper.
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Review following the examples of different ways to cite direct quotations. Note that when a parenthetical citation appears at the end of the sentence, it comes after the closing quotation marks and before the period. The elements within parentheses are separated by commas.
Including the title of a source is optional. Include the page number in the parenthetical citation. Also, notice the use of the verb asserts to introduce the direct quotation. When you paraphrase or summarize ideas from a source, you follow the same guidelines previously provided, except that you are not required to provide the page number where the ideas are located. Chang pointed out that weight-bearing exercise has many potential benefits for women. Here, the writer is summarizing a major idea that recurs throughout the source material. No page reference is needed.
Chang found that weight-bearing exercise could help women maintain or even increase bone density through middle age and beyond, reducing the likelihood that they will develop osteoporosis in later life p. Although the writer is not directly quoting the source, this passage paraphrases a specific detail, so the writer chose to include the page number where the information is located. Although APA style guidelines do not require writers to provide page numbers for material that is not directly quoted, your instructor may wish you to do so when possible. Check with your instructor about his or her preferences.
When you quote a longer passage from a source—forty words or more—use a different format to set off the quoted material. Instead of using quotation marks, create a block quotation A long quotation forty words or more that uses indentation, rather than quotation marks, to indicate that the material is quoted. Block quotations are indented five spaces from the left margin. The page reference is included in parentheses after the end punctuation for the quote. Note that in this case, the parenthetical citation comes after the period that ends the sentence.
Here is an example:. In recent years, many writers within the fitness industry have emphasized the ways in which women can benefit from weight-bearing exercise, such as weightlifting, karate, dancing, stair climbing, hiking, and jogging. Additionally, these exercises help women maintain muscle mass and overall strength, and many common forms of weight-bearing exercise, such as brisk walking or stair climbing, also provide noticeable cardiovascular benefits. Review the places in your paper where you cited, quoted, and paraphrased material from a source with a single author.
Edit your citations to ensure that. If you are quoting a passage that continues into a second paragraph, indent five spaces again in the first line of the second paragraph. It is important to note that swimming cannot be considered a weight-bearing exercise, since the water supports and cushions the swimmer. Be wary of quoting from sources at length. Remember, your ideas should drive the paper, and quotations should be used to support and enhance your points. Make sure any lengthy quotations that you include serve a clear purpose.
Generally, no more than 10—15 percent of a paper should consist of quoted material. This citation technique also helps convey that you are actively engaged with your source material. Punch up your writing by using strong verbs that help your reader understand how the source material presents ideas. The following chart shows some possibilities. Review the citations in your paper once again. This time, look for places where you introduced source material using a signal phrase in your sentence.
Do not say a source argues a particular point unless an argument is, in fact, presented.
Use lively language, but avoid language that is emotionally charged. These sections discuss the correct format for various types of in-text citations. Read them through quickly to get a sense of what is covered, and then refer to them again as needed. This section covers books, articles, and other print sources with one or more authors.
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Include a page reference whenever you quote a source directly. See also the guidelines presented earlier in this chapter about when to include a page reference for paraphrased material. At times, your research may include multiple works by the same author.